The port is a place where ships can be parked and transported goods and personnel. It is located on water bodies such as foreign, sea, rivers, and lakes. It usually also has the function of the port. Because the port is a natural interface that connects inland hinterland and marine transportation (international aviation transportation), people also use ports as a special node for international logistics. The port is located on the river, sea, lakes, and reservoirs. There are water and land cities and various facilities. Pacific ships in and out, mooring, loading and unloading goods or passenger distribution. The port is the distribution center of water and land assembly, industrial and agricultural production, and import and export materials.
In China, the construction of coastal ports focuses on transportation systems such as coal, container, imported iron ore, grain, land island, and deep -water out -to -sea channels. The construction of container transportation systems has been strengthened. The government has concentrated its power in Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Ningbo, Tangshan, and Shenzhen. A number of deep -water container docks have been constructed, which has laid the foundation for the formation of the Chinese container hub port; Catch coal loading ship terminal. At the same time, a number of imported crude oil and iron ore pier were rebuilt and expanded. By the end of 2004, there were more than 2,500 berths above the coastal port, of which more than 650 were 10,000 tons of berths. The annual container throughput was 61.5 million standard boxes, ranking first in the world. The total throughput of some Dagangs exceeds 100 million tons, Shanghai Port, Shenzhen Port, Qingdao Port, Tianjin Port, Guangzhou Port, Tangshan Port, Ningbo Port,
Airport is an airport that is accepted and transferred to passengers and goods, and airports with complete facilities for aircraft shutdown and maintenance. Airport is the whole of civil aviation airports and related service facilities. Ensure the safe take -off and landing of aircraft, the distribution center of air transport passengers and goods. Including three parts: flight area, passenger and cargo transportation service area, and machine maintenance zone.
Airport, public buildings and related facilities for aviation transportation are usually called airports or airports. In the 1920s, when using a propeller aircraft, there were some simple buildings next to the airport runway. Since the 1950s, due to the widespread adoption of large jet passenger aircraft, it has gradually developed into large buildings with complex technology facilities. Airport is the whole of civil aviation airports and related service facilities. Ensure the safe take -off and landing of aircraft, the distribution center of air transport passengers and goods.
The largest aviation ports in the world include the London Hidelo Airport in London, Paris, Da Goghler, France, and Chicago International Airport in the United States. China’s largest airport is Beijing International Airport.
The airport includes three parts: flight area, passenger and cargo transportation service area and machine maintenance zone.
① Flight area. To ensure the aircraft’s safe take -off and landing areas. There are runways, taxi channels, apron and radio communication navigation systems, visual aid facilities and other facilities that guarantee flight safety, covering the largest area in the airport. There is a clean air area over the flight area. It is the airspace with a specified obstacle restricted surface. The ground objects must not surpass the restricted surface. The restriction surface is determined according to the performance of the airport’s take -off and landing aircraft.
②The passenger and freight transport service area. Provide passengers and owners with ground services. The main body is the terminal, and there are also passenger apron, parking lot, entering and leaving port road systems. There is also a freight port with a large freight port. There is a pipeline refueling system near the passenger pipe.
③ Machine maintenance zone. The areas of various aircraft maintenance and normal work of aircraft maintenance and airports. There are facilities such as maintenance plants, maintenance hangers, maintenance machines and water supply, water supply, power supply, heating, cooling, water supply, and water off the water, as well as fire stations, emergency stations, oil storage depot, railway -specific lines, etc.
It should be in line with urban overall planning and considering convenient transportation. It should not be set in areas of fog, smoke, and storms, and thunder. There should be no obstacles such as high mountains over the airport and the specified scope. In addition, stay away from the birds habitat to avoid the attraction of the airport environment and vegetation to birds. In order to exclude the interference of noise on the lives of residents when the aircraft is up and fall, the airport cohabitation point should maintain a necessary distance.
The main buildings and facilities of the airport include aircraft runways, apron, parking lots, terminals, conducting towers, and glory. In addition, there are cargo stations and transit hotels.
The layout and length of the runway runway should be determined according to the type of aircraft, the layout, scale, and business methods of the airport. At present, the general flight distance is 10,000 kilometers, and the runway is 3640 meters long; the flight distance is less than 5,000 kilometers, and the runway is 2730 to 3020 meters long. The length of the runway is also related to the performance of the aircraft. The length of the runway must also consider the altitude, average maximum temperature and effective vertical slope where the aviation port is located. The arrangement of the runway is related to the capacity of the airport and the base of the base, and the common ones, parallel, cross -shaped, V -shaped, integrated, etc.
The main buildings in the airport of the waiting building. Among them, the facilities for passengers are: ① procedures, including signing counters, luggage consignments, inspection offices (safety, customs, immigration verification, health and epidemic prevention, etc.), luggage extraction, etc. ② The service system, including toilets, telephone rooms, medical rooms, post offices, banks, barber rooms, taxi stations, restaurants, bars, shops, books and newspapers, and senders. ③ The flight exchange system, including boarding port, boarding lounge, automatic pedestrian corridor, carrier vehicle, boarding bridge, side chair and related service space. In addition, there are facilities for airline operations, management and government departments.
The layout of the terminal building is the following:
① centralized formula, passengers go through the procedures in the departure hall, then enter the terminal for waiting, and then board the boarding port, which is suitable for small airports. ② Corridor, the waiting part is a gallery trestle layout method, with a single shape and a finger -shaped multiple shape. After the passengers go through the procedures in the departure hall, they will be boarded by the boarding bridge in the corridor. This form is suitable for aviation ports with large volume. ③ Satellite pavilion style, its location is outside the terminal, and is connected to the corridor (underground or above the ground). The passenger has been boarded by the boarding bridge through the boarding bridge. Essence ④ The carrier method or the locomotive method, the plane is parked on the apron far away from the waiting building, and the passengers take the locomotive to board or leave the aircraft. Adopting this kind of boarding method, the terminal can be concentrated, flexible in plane, and is not affected by the increase in aircraft passenger loading and increasing aircraft models. ⑤ Directly connected to the airport type, scattered the procedures, and set up before each shutdown, to shorten the process of passenger procedures and waiting for the passenger. A airport can use a certain way of boarding above, or several ways to arrange it. Passengers in the waiting building have also arrived, departed, and transit, so the terminal can use different levels to organize traffic.
The control and command center of the command tower airport should be located at a higher part, or built on the upper part of the terminal, or an independent tower. The tower and instrument flight command room is generally layered. The tower is located in the upper part, with an antenna of the top device radar and various communication equipment.
The hangar is divided into maintenance inspection and body repair, most of which adopt large -scale space structures such as large span truss, suspension, and mesh. The tall gates should be easy to open and closed.
- Public career
Airport is a national basic facility, and the government provides policy financial support. Use it for the whole society and serve the whole society. It is characterized by: large investment in one -time construction, long income cycle, and social benefits cannot accurately occupy calculations. It has a certain role in promoting the local economy.
- Quasi -military nature
Refers to the potential military effect of flights in airports, and must go all out for national defense requirements or earthquake resistance, disaster relief, rescue and customer service.
- Need to operate
Airport operations and management do not take profitability as the only goal, but as an enterprise, it is necessary to emphasize operation and implement commercial management. The so -called commercialization management of aviation ports is to transform the airport from traditional guarantee and service -centric management to profit -centered management, thereby establishing an efficient, perfect, scientific airport operation management system, increasing financing channels, increasing investment returns Rate, pursuing the maximum business goal of the airport.
In order to make up for operating losses, cross -regional and cross -border operations, in vitro circulation, comprehensive industries and comprehensive services have gradually become a development trend.