range type of poultry house in China

On May 29, with the approval of the State Council, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Ministry officially announced the “Catalog of National livestock and poultry genetic resource” (hereinafter referred to as the “Catalog”), and for the first time, the scope of livestock and poultry varieties was clarified. How is the scope of livestock and poultry determined? Why are dogs and some domesticated wild animals not include? The reporter interviewed the head of the Agricultural and Rural Ministry on the background and main content of the “Catalog”.

Why publish the first directory?

According to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the National People’s Congress on the Decision of Comprehensively Banning illegal Wildlife Transactions, Elimination of Wild Animal Animal Habits, and Effectively Guaranteeing the Health and Safety of the People’s Life “(referred to as” Decision “) and the” Law of the People’s Republic of China “, the State Council Animal Husbandry Veterinary Administration The management department is responsible for organizing the survey of livestock and poultry genetic resources, and announced the directory of livestock and poultry genetic resources approved by the State Council. Recently, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has conducted in -depth research to accelerate the formulation of the “Catalog”. The opinions of 36 central and state organs, 31 provincial people’s governments, and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps have been solicited. They have heard the opinions of scientific research institutes, colleges and industry experts and scholars, and publicly solicited opinions from the society. Officially announced on the 29th.

“Catalog” is an important supporting document for the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and “Decision” and “Animal Husbandry Law”. It defines which animals belong to livestock and poultry, and which livestock and poultry’s genetic resource protection, utilization, breeding, breeding, management, transportation and other activities are applicable to the management of the “Animal Husbandry Law”. It not only fully considers the actual needs of the current production of animal husbandry, but also scientifically take into account the development trend of the safety consumption of livestock products in the future. “The person in charge said that the implementation of the” Catalog “is of great significance to ensure the health and safety of the people; it is accurate to grasp the scope of livestock and poultry, properly handle the relationship between the protection and utilization of resources and industrial development, promote the healthy development of livestock and poultry breeding, and continuously increase agricultural agriculture Herders’ income is of practical significance.

“The formulation and implementation of the” Catalog “will effectively promote the sustainable and healthy development of my country’s animal husbandry in China, and ensure the effective supply and quality and safety of animal products.” The development of animal husbandry in my country. In the past 40 years of reform and opening up, the development of animal husbandry has entered the fast lane, with a total output value of nearly 3 trillion yuan, an increase of 142.5 times; the total meat and egg output ranks first in the world, accounting for 26%and 40%of global output. The livestock and poultry industry has become the strategic support for the development of modern animal husbandry in my country.

According to reports, during the implementation of the directory, on the one hand, the protection and utilization of genetic resources of livestock and poultry will be strengthened. In -depth excavation of the fine quality and genes of livestock and poultry, accelerate the cultivation of new types of livestock and poultry with international competitiveness; strengthen the development of industrial development of the genetic resources of local specialty livestock and poultry, and improve the level of protection and utilization of livestock and poultry genetic resources. On the other hand, strengthen the supervision of the breeding of livestock and poultry and animal husbandry. Strengthen the management of livestock and poultry production and operation, and improve the system of livestock and poultry breeding, breeding management, product processing, and epidemic prevention and control. Strengthen the management of fur animals such as mink, silver fox, Arctic fox, and 貉, and it is strictly forbidden to operate the carcass at the purpose of consumption.

How is the scope of livestock and poultry determined?

“In the process of formulating the” Catalog “, we focus on the four principles: First, we must adhere to science. Livestock and poultry are livestock within the range of mammals and birds. Artificial selection of economic traits; second, highlight safety, give priority to food safety, public health safety and ecological safety; third, respect national habits, take into account factors such as multi -ethnic production, lifestyle and traditional culture; Refer to the international approach. “The person in charge said.

According to the above principles, the “Catalog” includes 33 kinds of livestock and poultry, including 17 species of traditional livestock and poultry and 16 specialty livestock and poultry. These livestock and poultry have been domesticated and reproduced for a long time. They have a certain group scale and are mainly used for agricultural production. The population can be reproduced under artificial breeding conditions, providing humans with products such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, fiber, etc., or to meet the needs of service and exercise.

According to reports, traditional livestock and poultry are the main part of my country’s animal husbandry production. Among them, the domestication of pigs, cattle, sheep, horses, donkeys, and chickens has more than 10,000 years, and the domestication history of camels, rabbits, ducks, geese, pigeons, quails is less than a thousand years. Special livestock and poultry are an important supplement to the production of animal husbandry, and some are introduced from abroad. Although the breeding time in China has not been domesticated for at least thousands of years, the population is stable and the production is safe, the production is safe, such as alpaca, turkey, and ostrich. Part of it is China’s own regional specialty species. The breeding has a long history and has formed a relatively complete industrial system, such as sika deer, horse deer, reindeer, etc. There are also non -food species, which are mainly used for fur processing and product exports. There are already mature domestic breeds, such as puppies such as mink, silver fox, Arctic fox, and 貉.

Why are some domesticated wild animals be included in the directory?

“There are more than 5,400 kinds of mammals and more than 9,800 birds in nature, most of which are wild animals.” The person in charge said that some places and farmers suggested to include some circle of wild animals in the directory. Because some of these wild animals have not been raised for a long time, some sources need to be collected from the wild, which is difficult to distinguish from wild population. Some public health risks are not clear, and some do not belong to the range of mammals and birds, and do not have the standards and conditions of livestock and poultry. Therefore, it should not be included in the directory, and continues to be managed in accordance with the Wildlife Protection Law and related laws and regulations. (Economic Daily reporter Joe) According to

The most common poultry is a chicken. Most of the rural families will raise chickens, and the ecology of rural areas is also suitable for chickens. Poultry house is indispensable.

1 closed chicken house

1.1 The architectural characteristics of a closed chicken house
Closed chicken houses, also known as window chicken houses, are common in large -scale chicken farms built in the early stage. Its technical characteristics are that the environment in the chicken house is completely controlled by manual control, and the environment of the chicken house is easy to reach the ideal state. The top cover and four walls of the closed chicken coop are good. Generally, there are no windows and fully closed. Adjust the climate in the house by manually controlling various facilities to get as close to the physiological functions of chickens as possible. And the lighting program can be determined according to the variety and age of the chicken in the house. It is not affected by the seasons, so that the sexual maturity of the chicken and the body are mature.
The closed chicken house ventilation design adopts a negative pressure ventilation method, and the vertical ventilation of the chicken house uses axis flow fan. Pay attention to the height, location and spacing of the lamp when using artificial lighting.

1.2 Characteristics and precautions of closed chicken houses
In recent years, many intensive chicken farms have been established in northern China. The climate in northern China is dry, the summer is hot, the winter is cold and long, and the snow is heavy. For large -scale enterprises with economic strength, a closed chicken coop is generally used when the breeding scale is large to ensure that the indoor environment is stable, thermal insulation, and not affected by cold weather in winter; from the perspective of energy saving and consumption reduction Choose a closed chicken house with windows. On the one hand, they can make full use of the windows and ventilation holes in the warm season for natural ventilation or auxiliary mechanical ventilation; on the other hand, under the premise of not increasing the heating facilities in winter, the careful design of the external enclosure structure and ventilation pipeline is completely designed. It can ensure the environment of the chicken house and greatly save energy.

The temperature in North China is cold. In the process of ventilation management of chicken houses, the contradiction between ventilation and thermal insulation is prominent. When coordinating the contradiction between the two, the premise is to ensure the minimum ventilation volume. No matter how low the environmental temperature of the chicken house, it is necessary to ensure the minimum effective ventilation of the chicken house. When using this kind of chicken house, the most important thing is not only to pay attention to thermal insulation design, but also to ensure the heating of reasonable ventilation.

2 Open the chicken house

2.1 The architectural characteristics of the open chicken house
The most common form of an open chicken coop is a chicken house with windows and windows on all sides. There are large windows on the south wall, small windows in the north, and there are no playgrounds in the south. The technical characteristics of the open chicken coop are connected to the chicken house. The main principle is to use solar energy to form a greenhouse effect, natural ventilation, natural light. Due to limited natural ventilation and lighting, ventilation and lighting equipment are often added in production management to supplement the lack of ventilation and lighting under natural conditions. This chicken house requires strict insulation performance of building materials.

range type of  poultry house

In the design of an open chicken house, the design of the window should be paid attention to. The design principles are as follows: The position of the window should be determined according to the angle of the center of the chicken house and the upper edge of the window, and the number of windows should be determined according to the local climate. In general, the area of ​​the north -south window in the hot place is 1: 1, and the cold place is 2: 1; in order to ensure uniform lighting and a certain window area, the number of windows can be increased and the window spacing can be reduced. In the south of the Yangtze River, the window distance should be 1.0 ~ 1.5 m, 1.8 m width, and 2.0 m in height. Plastic or aluminum alloy windows should be used. The north of the Yangtze River is 1.5 meters, 1.8 meters wide, and 2.0 meters high. Can add a floor -to -ceiling window with a length of 50 cm, a width of 30 cm, and a spacing of 2.0 m to ensure that the air circulation in the chicken house is smooth.

2.2 Features of the use of open chicken houses
In the past ten years, a large number of factory chicken farms have been built in the hot areas of southern my country, most of which are open natural ventilation chicken houses. This chicken house has a simple structure, low cost, low operating costs, and has been widely used in hot areas. In recent years, affected by the phenomenon of El Nino, the summer is cool and hot in the south, and the climate conditions are bad. This climate makes it more difficult for animals such as chickens and other animals without sweat glands to dissipate heat, resulting in a rising mortality rate of chickens, a significant decline in egg production rate, and it is difficult to maintain eggs in a good economic state. Therefore, the ventilation and cooling of the open chicken house in the southern summer is the main problem that must be paid attention to.
The results show that mechanical ventilation and spray cooling methods are suitable for the ventilation and cooling of the southern summer chicken house. Appropriate ventilation methods and cooling methods can effectively control environmental factors, improve the climate in the eggs and hen coop, and improve the production environment.

3 semi -open chicken house

3.1 The architectural characteristics of the semi -open chicken house
The semi -open chicken house is an energy -saving chicken house that uses natural environmental factors. The upper half of the side wall of the chicken coop is completely open, and the double -layer rolling curtain door made of semi -transparent dual -film plastic or double -layer glass fiber reinforcement windows is the surrounding structure of the north -south side wall. For a semi -open chicken house, doors and windows are the main lighting and ventilation facilities. The ratio of the area and window area to the inner area of ​​the chicken house is 1: 8 ~ 25 (lighting coefficient), which vary from the region. Chicken houses span 7 ~ 9 m, high height 2.6 ~ 2.8 m, 3 m in the opening room, and the length of the chicken house 30 ~ 60 m . Horizontal natural ventilation can meet the environmental requirements of the chicken house. If the span is increased, mechanical ventilation is needed. The semi -open chicken house has strong applicability, suitable for various types of egg meat and various growth stages.

3.2 The characteristics and precautions of the semi -open chicken house
The semi -open chicken house exists in all climate areas, and the commercial eggs in central China are mainly this type. Most areas of my country, especially south of the Yangtze River, are humid in summer and a long duration. High temperatures make the chicken group in a thermal stress state, and the high air humidity will further exacerbate the adverse effects of high temperature, resulting in a decline in production performance. The warm environment inside and outside the chicken house is not much different, and the heatstroke prevention and cooling effect are weak. The structure and heatstroke and cooling measures of the chicken house will directly affect the climate of the chicken house, thereby affecting the health and production performance of the chicken. When using this chicken house, we must focus on improving the environment of the chicken house. In the hot summer, we must increase the air volume as much as possible, and hang the fan on the upper part of the chicken cock to make each chicken the best effect. At the same time, open the doors and windows as much as possible.

From noon to 17 pm, the cold water is sprayed directly on the top or chicken with a high -pressure and low mist sprayer, and spray it every 2 to 3 h to reduce the temperature of 4 ~ 8 ° C. If conditions permit, you can install the spray cooling system, but it should be noted that it is not advisable to cool the water spray in the stuffy weather with too much humidity . In addition, air hygiene quality has a great impact on the production performance and health of chickens. Due to the high humidity of the south in the summer, the harmful gases in the semi -open chicken house are not easy to discharge. Therefore, the monitoring of the air sanitary quality of the chicken house can guide the evaluation of the chicken house ventilation system.

4 New Energy -saving Chicken House

4.1 “Open and Close” Multifunctional Chicken House

The chicken house uses a large multi -functional dual -layer glass fiber reinforcement window, and the large -scale glass reinforced windows on both sides are used as the air inlet. The opening level of the glass fiber reinforcement window is adjusted by the window opening. In gentle weather, the indoor environment is adjusted by the FRP windows on both sides, and the fan does not need to start. When harsh weather, close the large windows on both sides, open the air inlets on one side of the gables, and open the fan on the other side of the gable on the other side to force ventilation, so that the chicken house has both opening and closing function. It is worth noting that when using this kind of chicken house, you must choose windows with good sealing performance to prevent cold and heat penetration, which affects the ventilation effect.

4.2 Licken Chicken House
In this chicken house, several chicken coops are combined from the shared partition wall, and the interval between adjacent chicken houses is canceled. Each single chicken coop is only one wall, with vertical ventilation, lighting of the roof, and emergency holes in the roof. Due to the decrease in the number of exterior walls of the coastal chicken house, the wall does not need to be kept insulation, which reduces the cost of construction. Linking the chicken house is a closed chicken house in the form of architecture, but it can also determine the use of artificial light or natural light according to different climatic conditions and seasonal changes. This can reduce the dependence on electrical energy and save electricity.

4.3 Arched Chicken House
The chicken house adopts the arched structure of the light steel dragon skeleton, and the polystyrene board and non -woven fabric are used as the basic material. The composite insulation board after waterproofing is treated as the roof and side wall material. This material has a strong insulation performance, which can not only effectively block the solar radiation in summer, but also reduce the indoor calories in winter. This kind of chicken house has the advantages of large span, large number of houses, low investment, short construction cycle, fast results, and strong market competitiveness.

4.4 assembly multi -layer chicken house
Chicken house adopts pre -made components, light steel roofs, and roof mechanical suppression galvanized tiles,The roof hanging ceiling, laid the insulation material. The upper layer is a five -layer board. As a lower ceiling, the wall uses the insulation composite material with good thermal insulation performance. This kind of chicken house is light weight, strong structure, simple and fast construction, but the price is relatively high, and it is still difficult to promote.

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