The warehouse is composed of the warehouses, transportation and transmission facilities (such as cranes, elevators, sliders, etc.), and the transmission pipelines and equipment of the in -warehouse, as well as fire facilities, and management houses. It is a general term for the buildings and places that keeps and stored items.
The warehouse can be divided into warehouses that store solid objects, liquid items, gas items, and powder items in accordance with the shape of the storage items; according to the nature of the storage items, they can be divided into storage raw materials, semi -finished products and finished products; according to the building The form can be divided into single -layer warehouses, multi -layer warehouses, and cylindrical warehouses.
It can be divided into the following types according to use
(1) Wholesale warehouse
The wholesale warehouse is mainly used to store products that are transferred from the purchase and supply library or purchased locally. This type of warehouse is generally close to the product sales market. The scale is generally smaller than the purchase and supply warehouse. Also engaged in zero supply business.
(2) Purchasing supply warehouse
Procurement and supply warehouses are mainly used to concentrate the purchase of goods acquired from the production department and the international import and export. Generally, this type of warehouse library is located in the place where the product is relatively concentrated, medium cities, or the location of the commodity transportation hub.
(3) Processing warehouse
After talking about the function of the warehouse, the processing delay function of the warehouse has been talked about. The warehouse with product processing capabilities is generally a processing warehouse.
(4) Transfer warehouse
The transit warehouse is in the intermediate link of the cargo transportation system. Storage of those goods waiting for transportation. Generally, the goods are only temporarily parking here. This type of warehouse is generally set up near the port of roads, railway stations and waterway transportation ports to facilitate the cargo Waiting for transportation.
(5) Retail warehouse
Retail warehouses are mainly used to make short -term storage for the commercial retail industry. Generally, store sales are provided. The scale of retail warehouses is small, and the stored materials are fast.
(6) Reserve warehouse
Such warehouses are generally set up by the state to keep the state’s emergency reserve materials and combat supplies. The storage time in this type of warehouse is generally relatively long, and the storage materials will be updated regularly to ensure the quality of the material.
(7) Bonded warehouse
The bonded warehouse refers to the need for international trade, which is set on a country’s land, but is warehouse outside the customs. Foreign enterprises’ goods can be exempted from entering and exiting such warehouses to go through customs declaration procedures, and after approval, the goods can be processed, stored in the bonded warehouse.
According to the characteristics of the goods, it can be divided into the following types
(1) Raw material warehouse
The raw material warehouse is used to store raw materials for production. Such warehouses are generally large.
(2) Product warehouse
The role of the product warehouse is to store the products that have been completed, but these products have not yet entered the circulation area. This warehouse is generally affiliated to the product production plant.
(3) Refrigeration warehouse
It is used to store goods that require refrigeration and storage. Generally, it is mostly agricultural and sideline products, medicines, etc. It is required for the storage temperature.
(4) constant temperature warehouse
The constant temperature warehouse, like refrigerated warehouse, is also used to store products that require storage temperature.
(5) Dangerous goods warehouse
The dangerous goods warehouse is relatively easy to understand from the literally that it is used to store dangerous goods. Dangerous goods may cause specific requirements in the storage of such objects because of the danger of the human body and the environment. Dangerous goods, their storage has special regulations.
(6) surface warehouse
They can be stored on the water on the water that can float on the water.
At this stage, there is a mini -warehouse prototype based on storage items as a business. Some large warehouses provide small -area storage services. Such services are stacked in large warehouses. There is no obvious interval between objects and things, so there is no lack of lack of lack Safety and hidden. Most areas do not have the conditions to develop mini warehouses. At present, only first -tier cities such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Shenzhen are quietly popular in China.
Single -layer warehouse
Suitable for storing metal materials, building materials, ore, mechanical products, vehicles, oil, chemical raw materials, wood and its products, etc. Water transportation pier warehouses, railway transport warehouses, and aviation transport warehouses are multi -layered buildings to accelerate the loading and unloading speed. The total graphic design of the single -layer warehouse requires the road to penetrate. The transport and fats that can be transported can directly enter and exit the warehouse. This warehouse generally uses a prefabricated reinforced concrete structure. The column net is generally 6 meters, and the span ranges from 12 meters, 15 meters, 18 meters, 24 meters, 30 meters, and 36 meters. The large warehouse with large piles on the ground should be large. The lifting capacity of the crane in the library is determined according to the maximum weight of the stored goods. A single -beam crane or monorail gourd with a weight of less than 5 tons, a bridge -type crane with more than 5 tons. The warehouse requires moisture -proof. If the savings are used for storage, a flexible ground layer should be used to prevent sparks. Both the roof and the wall should not seep or leak.
Multi -layer warehouse
Generally stored department stores, electronic equipment, food, rubber products, medicines, medical devices, chemical products, cultural supplies, instruments, etc. There should be unloading and loading venues on the bottom layer, and the loading and unloading vehicles can enter directly. The vertical transportation of the cargo generally uses 1.5 to 5 tons of freight elevators. Considering the transportation car, the car cart or a forklift can be drove into the elevator room to speed up the loading and unloading speed. Multi -layer warehouses are commonly unloaded with slides. The slider is multi -steel concrete structure, water milling and waxing as the surface layer; metal skeleton, steel plate surface can also be used, but the steel plate is prevented from rusting or using stainless steel plate as the surface layer. For a multi -layer warehouse, if the unit loads is greater than 500 kilograms, a beamless building can be used. The warehouse is generally not painted, and the slurry seams can be pale; the warehouses that store department stores, medicines, foods, and clothing should be painted to prevent hidden insects in the seam. The “three -dimensional warehouse” in the multi -layer warehouse uses electronic computers to achieve mechanization. This warehouse covers a small area and saves manpower, but there is a certain range of storage of goods.
Generally, storage of bulk cement, dry mines, flour ash, bulk grain, oil, gas and other gases. The architectural design of the cylindrical warehouse is determined according to the types of storage items and the method of input and unloading. The top of the library, the wall, and the bottom of the library must be waterproof and moisture -proof, and the database should be provided with a vacuum device. In order to facilitate daily maintenance, a hanging holes, human holes (library wall climbing), warehouse holes and lifting hooks should be set up. The cylindrical warehouse generally uses the stress reinforcement concrete structure with sinking stress, and is constructed with a sliding mold method. The oil storage and gas storage libraries are structured with metal. Pay attention to the ventilation of the warehouse. On the outer wall of each layer of the warehouse, a shutter should be set on the outer wall of the warehouse, and a metal net is added outside the shutter window to prevent birds. The warehouse of the dangerous storage such as oil storage (gas) or the storage of chemical raw materials must prevent heat and moisture and moisture. Add the heat insulation layer on the roof or design according to explosion -proof roof. ground. The oil storage depot should be set up. Food warehouses should prevent ants and bee -resistant.
The bonded warehouse is obtained in accordance with the provisions of relevant laws and import and export trade, and it specializes in warehouses that specialize in import and export goods that have not been taxed abroad and have not yet taxed.
Settles of the shelf automation warehouse referred to as a three -dimensional warehouse. Generally, it refers to the cargo with several layers, dozens of floors, and even dozens of heights, and use the corresponding material handling equipment to carry out the warehouse of the goods and the warehouse. Because such warehouses can make full use of space to store goods, it often refers to it as a “three -dimensional warehouse”.
Automated three -dimensional warehouses, also known as automated stereo storage, new concepts appearing in logistics warehouses. Using stereo warehouse equipment can achieve high -level warehouse high -rise, automated access, and simple operation: automated stereo warehouse, which is a high current technical level. The main body of the automated three -dimensional warehouse consists of a shelves, lane -away stack cranes, entry (out) library workbench and automatic transport (out) and operating control system. The shelf is a building or structure of the steel structure or steel concrete structure. The shelves are the standard size of the cargo space. The lane lane stacker stacked the heavy machine through the alleyway between the shelves to complete the deposit and pickup. Management uses computer and barcode technology.